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Why elections in India have significant impact on stock market? Explained

Historical trends show that the stock market often reacts to pre-election opinion polls, campaign developments and potential government policy shifts

Written by  Jasleen Kaur -- May 31st 2024 02:03 PM
Why elections in India have significant impact on stock market? Explained

Why elections in India have significant impact on stock market? Explained

Lok Sabha Elections 2024:  As India, the world's largest democracy, prepares for the last leg of the Lok Sabha elections 2024 on June 1 and the results on June 4, the stock market invariably comes into focus. The impact of any elections on the Indian stock market, specifically on indices such as Sensex and Nifty, as well as individual shares, is profound and multifaceted. This influence can be attributed to the uncertainty elections bring and the potential policy changes a new government might implement.

Pre-Election Phase and Its Impact


In the months leading up to the elections, the Indian stock market typically experiences heightened volatility. Investors become cautious due to the uncertainty surrounding the outcomes. Historical trends show that the stock market often reacts to pre-election opinion polls, campaign developments and potential government policy shifts.

Positive sentiment about a stable and business-friendly government often leads to market optimism, with indices such as Sensex and Nifty trending upwards. Conversely, fears of a fractured mandate or an unstable coalition can cause market jitters, leading to downward trends.

How Stock Market Reacts To Result Outcome

The announcement of election results is a crucial moment for the Indian stock market. A clear and decisive victory for a party or coalition perceived as pro-business can lead to a surge in market indices. For example, when the Narendra Modi-led BJP won a decisive mandate in 2014 and 2019, both Sensex and Nifty soared to record highs, reflecting investor confidence in the party's economic agenda. On the other hand, ambiguous or unexpected results can trigger market sell-offs due to the perceived risk of political instability.

Post-Election Market Movements

Once a new government is in place, the stock market closely monitors its policy announcements and economic measures. A government that quickly implements growth-oriented policies, reforms and infrastructure projects tends to boost investor confidence, leading to sustained market gains. For instance, initiatives like the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Make in India campaign by the Modi government had significant positive impacts on market sentiment.

On the other hand, delays in policy implementation or contentious economic decisions can dampen market enthusiasm. For instance, markets can react negatively to policies perceived as anti-business or overly regulatory. Besides, fiscal policies, budget announcements and foreign investment regulations play crucial roles in shaping market trends post-elections.

How Different Sectors React Differently

Different sectors react differently to election outcomes based on anticipated policy impacts. For instance, infrastructure and real estate sectors often benefit from promises of increased public spending and development projects. The financial sector may see positive movements if the new government is expected to push for banking reforms and greater financial inclusion.

Sectors like tobacco, alcohol and mining might face adverse impacts if the new government imposes stricter regulations or higher taxes. Therefore, investors often adjust their portfolios based on anticipated sectoral shifts driven by the new government's policies.

Over the long term, the stock market's performance post-elections is closely tied to the overall stability and growth trajectory of the economy. A stable government with a clear economic vision can foster a conducive environment for business growth, leading to a robust stock market. Long-term investors typically look for signs of macroeconomic stability, sustainable growth, and sound fiscal management in the aftermath of elections.

- With inputs from agencies

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