Smoking: The findings of a new study done on more than 35,000 smokers found that even though women smoke fewer cigarettes than men but they are less likely to quit.
The research was recently presented at ESC Congress 2021. Study author Ms. Ingrid Allagbe, a PhD student at the University of Burgundy, Dijon, France said: "In our study, women who used smoking cessation services had higher rates of overweight or obesity, depression, and anxiety compared to men and kicked the habit less often. Our findings highlight the need to provide smoking cessation interventions tailored to the needs of women."
The study enrolled smokers aged 18 and older with at least one additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease: overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] 25 kg/m2 or above); high cholesterol; diabetes; high blood pressure; history of stroke, heart attack or angina.
A nicotine dependence scale was used to classify participants as having mild, moderate, or severe dependence. Smoking abstinence (at least 28 consecutive days) was self-reported and confirmed by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide less than 10 parts per million (ppm).
Participants provided information on their age, education level, other conditions including diabetes and respiratory illnesses, and number of cigarettes smoked each day. Height and weight were measured.
A total of 37,949 smokers were included in the study, of whom 16,492 (43.5 per cent) were women. The average age of women in the study was 48 years, while the average age of men was 51 years (p<0.001). More women (55 per cent) reported a bachelor's degree level of education or higher compared to men (45 per cent; p<0.001).
Both men and women had a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. High cholesterol was more common in men (33 per cent) compared to women (30 per cent; p<0.001), as was high blood pressure (26 per cent versus 23 per cent, respectively; p<0.001). Diabetes was also more common in men (13 per cent) compared to women (10 per cent; p<0.001).
The average number of cigarettes smoked daily was 23 in women and 27 in men (p<0.001). Some 56 percent of women had a severe nicotine dependence compared to 60 per cent of men (p<0.001). Abstinence was less common in women (52 percent) than men (55 percent; p<0.001).